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New way to manage SSH options in Ubuntu 20.04

There’s a new way to manage SSH settings for Ubuntu 20.04. Create a custom file in sshd_config.d.

I was updating my Ubuntu course from 18.04 to version 20.04 and found an intriguing new line in /etc/ssh/sshd_config.

Include /etc/ssh/sshd_config.d/*.conf

Looking at the man page for sshd_config, the SSH daemon, on starting, will now look for configuration settings in /etc/ssh/sshd_config.d/. The files should have any name ending in .conf. A possible name would be my_sshd_config.conf.

Why would I want to create a new, external file, instead of just editing the sshd_config file as I’ve always done?

From doing a quick search on the Internet regarding securing SSH, it looks like that’s exactly what most people are doing.

This new system introduces an opportunity though.

It follows the format for systemd unit files. I can now put my settings in a file in /etc/ssh/sshd_config.d/ and they’ll persist even if /etc/ssh/sshd_config is overwritten as part of an upgrade to the OpenSSH version running on my server.

It will also supersede settings in the /etc/ssh/sshd_config file. For environments where a lot of people may be managing systems, it’s nice to know that someone tweaking a file in the wrong way will not compromise critical security settings for your SSH service.

So, how does it work?

In the /etc/ssh/sshd_config.d/ directory, create a new file. I’m naming mine 10-my-sshd-stuff.conf. You’ll have to do this with sudo privileges.

sudo vim /etc/ssh/sshd_config.d/10-my-sshd-stuff.conf

Inside that file, enter the keywords and arguments you want to change from default, or ensure are explicitly addressed. Note that keywords are case-insensitive and arguments are case-sensitive.

There are some configuration changes I pretty much always make for any publicly exposed server I’ll put inside the file.

  • DebianBanner no
  • DisableForwarding yes
  • PermitRootLogin no
  • IgnoreRhosts yes
  • PasswordAuthentication no
  • PermitEmptyPasswords no

Caution! Be sure you have key based authentication set up and working before you set PasswordAuthentication to no!

Content of my-sshd-stuff.conf file.
Content of my-sshd-stuff.conf file

Be sure you understand the implications of the settings before applying them. Most are fairly innocuous, but setting PasswordAuthentication to no will lock you out of a remote system if you restart SSH and log out before testing. You’ll have to get back in through a console, then set up key based authentication.

You can find my tutorial on setting up key based authentication here.

Once you’re sure key based authentication is working, and your configuration file is the way you want it, restart SSH to make the settings take effect. There are a few ways you could accomplish this, but here’s one:

sudo service ssh reload

Reloading should not kill your active setting in case you’re in remotely and want to test with another connection before logging off.

Thats it! Now you can manage all your SSH settings in one file and they won’t be clobbered when OpenSSH is updated.

Courses

Along with the Bestseller, Ubuntu Linux Fundamentals, Basic Linux Server Administration, two other courses are available on Udemy.com.

pfSense Fundamentals, Secure Your Network With pfSense is a course demonstrating the most commonly used features of the open source pfSense firewall.

If you want to focus solely on learning how to securely configure Secure Shell connectivity with your Linux servers and network devices, check out Secure Shell Fundamentals – Learn SSH By Configuring It.

New Free Classes Online

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Art Supplies: Quick Guide

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New Products Added

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The E-Learning Basics

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Books To Buy On A $20 Budget

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Online Tutoring For Ages 8-12

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Top 5 Free Tutorials for Linux Beginners

5 Best Free Linux Tutorials for Beginners

Linux tutorials are all over the Internet. Here are a five of my favorites for beginners.

I present different formats, because we all learn differently. There are books, courses, web sites, and combined media.

#1 Introduction to Linux, A Beginner’s Guide, by Machtelt Garrels (Tille), The Linux Documentation Project (tdlp).

Introduction-to-Linux-A-Beginners-Guide
Introduction to Linux

Clicking on the image takes you to a .pdf version of the Guide.

The web version starts here.

The .pdf version is entitled “Introduction to Linux, A Hands on Guide“, and that name is appropriate. Tille labored hard to provide an excellent, hands on “course in a book” that will get you understanding Linux quickly, even if you’ve never used it before.

Pro’s

  • Thorough
  • Well written
  • A lot of exercises
  • Generic (not centered on one or a few distro’s)

Con’s

  • Dated
  • Not a step-by-step hand holding guide
  • Generic (not centered on one or a few distro’s)

I list the fact that it’s generic as a pro and a con. It’s a plus, in that the commands she gives should work with any distribution. It’s a negative because you don’t get any direction about which distro to use, or specific instructions regarding that distro.

Overall, a great place to start!

#2 Intro to Linux, The Linux Foundation, LFS101x

The Linux Foundation’s stated goal is to;

build sustainable ecosystems around open source projects to accelare technology development and comercial adoption.

In fulfilling that goal, they want people to understand Linux, so they provide free and paid training.

One free course, Introduction to Linux,  is made avaiable through the online course retailer, edX. You’ll have to sign up for a free account to access the course.

The Linux Foundation Image
The Linux Foundation – Introduction to Linux Course

The course gives thorough coverage of three operating systems, including lessons covering the Graphical User Interfaces (GUI’s) for CentOS, OpenSUSE, and Ubuntu Linux in the form of text based and video lessons.

Pro’s

  • Thorough coverage
  • Starts with the basics and builds on them
  • Covers three top Linux distributions

Con’s

  • Many text based lessons (could be wordy if you don’t like that format)

#3 Linux Journey

The Linux Journey presents information in the form of a Learning Management System (LMS). LMS’s are systems designed to make learning modular and permit you to teach any topic with relative ease.

The Linux Journey screen capture
The Linux Journey LMS

It has a modern, clean design, and presents the information in an intuitive way for people who like a self paced reading focused learning environment.

It is divided into some high level sections based on the skill level of the student.

The levels are:

  • Grasshopper
  • Journeyman
  • Networking Nomad

You’ll often see references to Linux Fu, or Command Line Fu. It’s supposed to relate to the martial art, Kung Fu.

Grasshopper for the most basic level, was the nick name for Kwai Chang Kane when he was a student at the Shao Lin Temple in the 70’s televesion series, Kung Fu.

Here are the Pro’s and Con’s of this site.

Pro’s

  • Thorough coverage
  • Starts with basics and builds on them

Con’s

  • Completely text based

#4 Eli the Computer Guy’s YouTube Play List, Introduction to Linux

If you’re a more online video oriented person, as I am, you may like Eli the Computer Guy’s Introduction to Linux series.

Eli the Computer Guy YouTube Play List Intro to Linux
Eli The Comuter Guy – Introduction to Linux

Eli talks on the videos, does white board explanations, and shows things in action on the computer.

If you like the video format, this course may be for you.

Pro’s

  • Decent coverage
  • Logical flow

Con’s

  • Some video’s are quite lengthy (longest is 53 minutes!)
  • No other inteeraction like quizzes or activities (limitaiton of YouTube)

#5 The Linux Command Line, A Complete Introduction, by William E. Shotts Jr., No Starch Press

Once you have the basics down from one or several of the courses, sites, or books above, it’s good to get nice and cozy with the Linux command line.

If you manage Linux servers, you’ll rarely be managing the actual server via a Graphical User Interface or GUI.

Almost all of your work will be done at the command line.

This book provides an excellent command line foundation.

The Linux Command Line Book Cover
The Linux Command Line

Pro’s

  • Excellent coverage of the Linux command line
  • Format encourages you to follow along and try things while reading

Con’s

  • Focused solely on the command line and interacting with the shell (you may want to start with one of the other resources first)

You’ll eventually find much of the information in many of the formats mentioned on this site as it’s built.

Please provide input if there are topics you’d like to covered sooner.

I am including a plug for my paid Udemy course, Ubuntu Linux Fundamentals – Learn Linux Server with Ubuntu, as well as a coupon so you can take it for $24.99 here. List price at the time I’m posting this is $100.

Happy learning, and please leave comments on what resources you like!

What do successful grads think you should study?

Learn to think smart.

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Follow your instincts

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  • Value your time – omnis iste natus error sit voluptatem

  • Take time off – totam rem aperiam, eaque ipsa

  • Never stop learning – quasi architecto beatae vitae dicta

  • Experience is overvalued – aspernatur aut odit aut fugit

  • Be courageous – iste natus error sit voluptatem

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